Source code for weylchamber.local_invariants

import numpy as np
from numpy import sin, cos, pi
import scipy
from scipy.optimize import leastsq
import logging
import qutip

from ._types import Gate, GTuple
from .coordinates import to_magic, c1c2c3, _SQ_unitary
from .cartan_decomposition import canonical_gate

__all__ = ['g1g2g3', 'g1g2g3_from_c1c2c3', 'J_T_LI', 'closest_LI']

[docs]def g1g2g3(U: Gate, ndigits=DEFAULT_WEYL_PRECISSION) -> GTuple: """Calculate local invariants $(g_1, g_3, g_3)$ Given a two-qubit gate, calculate local invariants $(g_1, g_2, g_3)$. U must be in the canonical basis. For numerical stability, the resulting values are rounded to the given precision, cf. the `ndigits` parameter of the built-in :func:`round` function. >>> print("%.2f %.2f %.2f" % g1g2g3(qutip.gates.cnot())) 0.00 0.00 1.00 """ # mathematically, the determinant of U and UB is the same, but # we seem to get better numerical accuracy if we calculate detU with # the rotated U UB = to_magic(U).full() # instance of np.ndarray detU = np.linalg.det(UB) m = UB.T @ UB g1_2 = (np.trace(m))**2 / (16.0 * detU) g3 = (np.trace(m)**2 - np.trace(m@m)) / (4.0 * detU) g1 = round(g1_2.real + 0.0, ndigits) # adding 0.0 turns -0.0 into +0.0 g2 = round(g1_2.imag + 0.0, ndigits) g3 = round(g3.real + 0.0, ndigits) return (g1, g2, g3)
[docs]def g1g2g3_from_c1c2c3( c1: float, c2: float, c3: float, ndigits=DEFAULT_WEYL_PRECISSION) -> GTuple: """Calculate local invariants from the Weyl chamber coordinates Calculate the local invariants $(g_1, g_2, g_3)$ from the Weyl chamber coordinates $(c_1, c_2, c_3)$, in units of π. The result is rounded to the given precision, in order to enhance numerical stability (cf. `ndigits` parameter of the built-in :func:`round` function) Example: >>> CNOT = qutip.gates.cnot() >>> print("%.2f %.2f %.2f" % g1g2g3_from_c1c2c3(*c1c2c3(CNOT))) 0.00 0.00 1.00 """ c1 *= pi c2 *= pi c3 *= pi g1 = round( cos(c1)**2 * cos(c2)**2 * cos(c3)**2 - sin(c1)**2 * sin(c2)**2 * sin(c3)**2 + 0.0, ndigits) g2 = round(0.25 * sin(2*c1) * sin(2*c2) * sin(2*c3) + 0.0, ndigits) g3 = round(4*g1 - cos(2*c1) * cos(2*c2) * cos(2*c3) + 0.0, ndigits) return g1, g2, g3
[docs]def J_T_LI(O: Gate, U: Gate, form='g'): """Calculate value of the local-invariants functional Args: O: The optimal gate U: The achieved gate form (str): form of the functional to use, 'g' or 'c' """ if form == 'g': return np.sum(np.abs(np.array(g1g2g3(O)) - np.array(g1g2g3(U)))**2) elif form == 'c': delta_c = np.array(c1c2c3(O)) - np.array(c1c2c3(U)) return * (delta_c) / 2.0)) else: raise ValueError("Illegal value for 'form'")
[docs]def closest_LI( U: Gate, c1: float, c2: float, c3: float, method='leastsq', limit=1.0e-6): """Find the closest gate that has the given Weyl chamber coordinates The `c1`, `c2`, `c3` are given in units of π """ A = canonical_gate(c1, c2, c3) def f_U(p): return _SQ_unitary(*p[:8]) * A * _SQ_unitary(*p[8:]) return _closest_gate(U, f_U, n=16, method=method, limit=limit)
def _closest_gate(U, f_U, n, x_max=2*pi, method='leastsq', limit=1.0e-6): """Find the closest gate to U that fulfills the parametrization implied by the function f_U Args: U (Gate): Target gate f_U (callable): function that takes an array of n values and returns an gate. n (integer): Number of parameters (size of the argument of f_U) x_max (float): Maximum value for each element of the array passed as an argument to f_U. There is no way to have different a different range for the different elements method (str): Name of mimimization method, either 'leastsq' or any of the gradient-free methods implemented by scipy.optimize.mimize limit (float): absolute error of the distance between the target gate and the optimized gate for convergence. The limit is automatically increased by an order of magnitude every 100 iterations """ logger = logging.getLogger(__name__) logger.debug("_closests_gate with method %s", method) from scipy.optimize import minimize if method == 'leastsq': def f_minimize(p): d = _vectorize(f_U(p)-U) return np.concatenate([d.real, d.imag]) else: def f_minimize(p): return _norm(U - f_U(p)) dist_min = None iter = 0 while True: iter += 1 if iter > 100: iter = 0 limit *= 10 logger.debug("_closests_gate limit -> %.2e", limit) p0 = x_max * np.random.random(n) success = False if method == 'leastsq': p, info = leastsq(f_minimize, p0) U_min = f_U(p) if info in [1, 2, 3, 4]: success = True else: res = minimize(f_minimize, p0, method=method) U_min = f_U(res.x) success = res.success if success: dist = _norm(U_min - U) logger.debug("_closests_gate dist = %.5e", dist) if dist_min is None: dist_min = dist logger.debug("_closests_gate dist_min -> %.5e", dist_min) else: logger.debug("_closests_gate delta_dist = %.5e", abs(dist-dist_min)) if abs(dist-dist_min) < limit: return U_min else: if dist < dist_min: dist_min = dist logger.debug("_closests_gate dist_min -> %.5e", dist_min) def _vectorize(a, order='F'): """Return vectorization of multi-dimensional numpy array or matrix `a` Examples: >>> a = np.array([1,2,3,4]) >>> _vectorize(a) array([1, 2, 3, 4]) >>> a = np.array([[1,2],[3,4]]) >>> _vectorize(a) array([1, 3, 2, 4]) >>> _vectorize(a, order='C') array([1, 2, 3, 4]) """ if isinstance(a, qutip.Qobj): a = a.full() N = a.size return np.squeeze(np.asarray(a).reshape((1, N), order=order)) def _norm(v): """Calculate the norm of a vector or matrix `v`, matching the inner product defined in the `inner` routine. An algorithm like Gram-Schmidt-Orthonormalization will only work if the choice of norm and inner product are compatible. If `v` is a vector, the norm is the 2-norm (i.e. the standard Euclidian vector norm). If `v` is a matrix, the norm is the Hilbert-Schmidt (aka Frobenius) norm. Note that the HS norm of a matrix is identical to the 2-norm of any vectorization of that matrix (e.g. writing the columns of the matrix underneat each other). Also, the HS norm of the m x 1 matrix is the same as the 2-norm of the equivalent m-dimensional vector. """ if isinstance(v, qutip.Qobj): v = if isinstance(v, scipy.sparse.spmatrix): return scipy.sparse.linalg.norm(v) else: return scipy.linalg.norm(v)